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Verb, adjective and noun-forming endings

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Examples for Verb-forming endings ‘-en’ is added to adjectives to make verbs.

Adjectives Verbs
Bright brighten
Dark darken
Deep deepen
Fresh freshen
Hard harden
Less lessen
Thick thicken
Coarse coarsen
Ripe ripen
Wide widen
Worse worsen
Fat fatten
Mad madden
Red redden
Sad sadden

Adjective-forming endings ‘-en’ is added to some nouns to make adjectives.

Nouns Adjectives
Gold golden
Earth earthen
Lead leaden
Silk silken
Wax waxen
Wheat wheaten
Wood wooden
Wool woolen

-er’ is added to some verbs to make nouns.

Verbs Nouns
Call caller
Desert deserter
Paint painter
Publish publisher
Read reader
Report reporter
Ski skier
Speak speaker
Train trainer
Walk walker
Work worker

‘r’ is added to some verbs to make nouns.

Verbs Nouns
Advertise advertiser
Argue arguer
Bake baker
Commute commuter
Giggle giggle
Invader invader
Lecture Lecture
Move mover
Liquidize liquidizer
Race racer
Ramble rambler
Skate skater
Tame tamer
Weave weaver

We double the final consonant of some verbs before adding ‘-er’ to make them nouns.

Verbs Nouns
Bid bidder
Jog jogger
Quit quitter
Run runner
Sit sitter
Zip zipper
Begin beginner
Programme programmer
Control controller
Level leveller
Signal signaller
Travel traveller

Before adding ‘-er’ to verbs ending with ‘y’, change ‘y’ to ‘i’.

Verbs Nouns
Amplify amplifier
Carry carrier
Copy copier
Fancy fancier
Humidify humidifier
Occupy occupier
Photocopy photocopier

Exceptions

Verbs Nouns
Buy buyer
Destroy destroyer
Play player
Stay stayer

Add ‘k’ before adding-er’ to verbs ending with ‘c’.
Verbs Nouns
Panic panickier
Picnic picnicker
Here is a list of ‘doer’ nouns ending in ‘or’. Be familiar with them.

Abductor, accelerator, actor, adjudicator, administrator, aggressor, ambassador, ancestor,
animator, arbitrator, auditor, author, aviator,
bachelor, benefactor, calculator, captor, censor, chancellor, collaborator, collector,
commentator, communicator, compressor, conductor, confessor, conqueror, conspirator,
constructor, contractor, contributor, councillor, counsellor, creator, creditor, curator,
decorator, defector, demonstrator, depositor, debtor, detonator, detractor, dictator,
director, distributor, doctor, donor, duplicator,
editor, educator, elector, elevator, emperor, equator, escalator, excavator, executor,
facilitator, factor,
gladiator, governor, guarantor,
illustrator, impersonator, impostor, incinerator, incubator, indicator, infiltrator, inheritor,
initiator, inquisitor, inspector, instructor, interrogator, inventor, investigator, investor, invigilator,
janitor, legislator, liberator,
major, mayor, mediator, mentor, microprocessor, monitor, narrator, navigator,
objector, operator, oppressor, orator, orchestrator,
pastor, perambulator, perpetrator, persecutor, possessor, precursor, predator,
predecessor, processor, professor, projector, proprietor, prosecutor, protector, purveyor,
radiator, rector, reflector, refrigerator, regulator,
sailor, selector, senator, solicitor, spectator, sponsor, suitor, supervisor, surveyor, survivor,
tailor, tractor, traitor, transgressor, transistor, translator,
vendor, ventilator, victor, violator, visitor

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